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The process of circuit design can cover systems ranging from
complex electronic systems all the way down to the individual
transistors within an integrated circuit. For simple circuits
the design process can often be done by one person without needing
a planned or structured design process, but for more complex
designs, teams of designers following a systematic approach
with intelligently guided computer simulation are becoming increasingly
Formal circuit design usually involves the following stages:
sometimes, writing the requirement specification after liaising
with the customer
writing a technical proposal to meet the requirements of the
synthesising on paper a schematic circuit diagram, an abstract
electrical or electronic circuit that will meet the specifications
calculating the component values to meet the operating specifications
under specified conditions
performing simulations to verify the correctness of the design
building a breadboard or other prototype version of the design
and testing against specification
making any alterations to the circuit to achieve compliance
choosing a method of construction as well as all the parts
and materials to be used
presenting component and layout information to draughtspersons,
and layout and mechanical engineers, for prototype production
testing or typetesting a number of prototypes to ensure compliance
with customer requirements
signing and approving the final manufacturing drawings
postdesign services (obsolescence of components etc.) specification
in terms of functional building blocks
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A Basic Concept of Novel Hybrid OptoElctronic Integrated Systems
With Textile Structures
?@According to the situation recognition of a basic limit
of electronics expansion in silicon planar technology, one
proposal based on a new technology completely different from
planar structure is done here.?@The new concept of the technology
is ?gtextile structure?h for integrated optoelectronic circuit.
The background of the new concept is shown from some historical
view point. The concept is also discussed as an optoelectronic
united circuit and a ?gClothes?h level system from applicationview
point. Characteristics and elemental technology of the textile
hybrid system are considered for future development of this
concept. Several concrete compositions and characteristics
of the proposed system are compared with those of present
technology to construct a new electronics system. This proposal
is also discussed in flexible electronics concept.
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Electronic circuit design
Thursday, 18 January 2007
Electronics are comprised of a myriad of semiconductor integrated
circuits in complex arrangements intended to optimize the
operation of the electronics. Integrated circuits (ICs) are
electrical circuits that arrange transistors, resistors, capacitors,
and other components on a single semiconductor die or substrate,
upon which the various components are interconnected to perform
a variety of functions. A semiconductor integrated circuit
is composed of a plurality of gates. A delay time of each
gate is defined as a sum of a delay time occurring within
the gate and a delay time occurring in wire connected to the
gate. The integrated circuits may be arranged into blocks
associated with a particular function. For instance, there
may be several blocks involved in only the input/output (I/O)
of signals to and from another block or group of blocks, there
may be blocks of circuits and logic gates whose primary function
is to store instantaneous state of the signals, there may
be blocks having a primary purpose of manipulation of the
signals using transistors, such as the logic gates and processors.
Integrated circuits are used to carry out a wide variety of
tasks in many different electrical and electronic components.
For these reasons, integrated circuit designs vary according
to the function and environment that an integrated circuit
is designed to operate in. Integrated circuits ranging from
ASICs to full custom ICs include a transistor embedded silicon
based structure, and an interconnect structure with metal
layers for power routing purposes, namely, the provision of
an IC power supply net, and transistor interconnection purposes.
An IC power supply net includes a power net for connection
to the power ports of an integrated circuit's power consuming
entities, and a ground net for connection to their ground
ports. Integrated circuits are preferably packaged prior to
use in a larger circuit, so as to protect the integrated circuit
and provide for electrical interconnections with other parts
of the larger circuit that are more easily made. Different
types of packaging are used for different types of integrated
circuits. For example, one type of integrated circuit is classified
as a flip chip. In flip chips, the electrical contacts for
the integrated circuit, or bonding pads, are typically distributed
across the entire top surface of the integrated circuit, rather
than being limited to a few rows around the peripheral edge
of the integrated circuit, as is done with some other integrated
circuit types. As integrated circuits become more complex,
more electrical connections are required between the integrated
circuit and the rest of the circuit in which it is used. However,
at the same time during which integrated circuits have become
more complex, they have also become much smaller. Thus, more
electrical connections for an integrated circuit are required,
and within a smaller amount of space, than at any previous
time. Advances in integrated circuit technology allow for
the production of integrated circuit semiconductor devices
having millions of gates, with each of the gates made up of
multiple transistors. Continuing advances in technology combined
with dropping production costs have led to a proliferation
of electronic devices that incorporate or use advanced digital
circuits including desktop computers, laptop computers, handheld
devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), handheld
computers, cellular phones, printers, digital cameras, camcorders,
facsimile machines and other electronic devices. As electronic
components and electronic systems have become more complex,
the design of these components and systems has become a more
time consuming and demanding task. Software simulation of
electronic components and systems has become an important
tool for designers.
Electronic circuit design and manufacturing are incredibly
complex operations. A typical design flow for integrated circuit
design includes many steps that proceed sequentially, with
each step depending on the results of the previous steps.
A semiconductor integrated circuit has a large number of electronic
components, such as transistors, logic gates, diodes, wires,
etc., that are fabricated by forming layers of different materials
and of different geometric shapes on various regions of a
silicon wafer. A circuit design, which begins as a functional
description of circuit logic, must be converted into circuit
components, such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, and
connecting wires, formed from areas of conductors, semiconductors,
and insulators on a semiconductor silicon die. The design
of integrated circuits is typically performed in three stages:
logic design, logic synthesis, and physical design. The first
stage is logic design, wherein the desired operation of the
integrated circuit is defined. The second stage is logic synthesis,
wherein the desired operation is translated into the required
circuit elements for a given technology. Design engineers
design an integrated circuit by transforming a circuit description
of the integrated circuit into geometric descriptions of physical
components that create the basic electronic components. The
design of an integrated circuit transforms a circuit description
into a geometric description called a layout. The process
of converting specifications of an integrated circuit into
a layout is called the physical design. The physical design
assigns the placement of these elements and routing which
creates the wire interconnect of these elements on the integrated
circuit. Layout of the circuit devices involves the manual
or automated layout of the circuit devices based on the sizes
of the circuit devices determined by the circuit synthesizer
during sizing of the circuit devices. Typically, a layout,
or physical design, for an integrated circuit is generated
from a schematic. A schematic defines the logical functions
performed by the integrated circuit and how the functions
are interconnected. The layout defines the physical components
used to construct the functions defined in the schematic.
This step involves generating a description of the design
to be implemented in an appropriate machinereadable form.
One of the commonly used methods for specifying a design is
a hardware description language (HDL). HDLs, such as the very
highspeed integrated circuit hardware description language
(VHDL) or Verilog, are textbased approaches to digital logic
design. VHDL and Verilog are allow definition of a Free PCB
Free Circuit Design/Simulation Tools
Free Electronic Circuits
Connector and Pinout reference
Digital Signal Processing
Microprocessors and Embedded Systems
Free Electronics Resources
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ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems
Free access to the tables of contents and abstracts of this
CAD publication concerning the specification, design, analysis,
simulation, testing, and evaluation of very large scale integrated
electronic systems, emphasising a computer science/engineering
orientation, are available as part of the ACM Digital Library.
Access to the fulltext of past issues (in PDF format) is available
to subscribing institutions.
Related articles can be searched for from each article record
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Case technology : ion implantation
This resource guide site includes links to tutorials, publications,
university sites, organisations, news, commercial sites and
personal home pages covering ion implantation and semiconductors.
The site is provided by Case Technologies Inc.
The Chip Directory is dedicated to providing information on
microchips. There is a numerically ordered listing of microchips
and listings by chip function, name or family. Among the other
resources at this site is an A to Z listing of chip manufacturers,
a listing of chip distributers by geographical region, and
pointers to related companies. There are also tips onChip
spotting, i.e. spotting the function of a particular chip.
A list of mirror sites is provided. A mailing list is available
(questions, answers and a discussion forum).
Circuit Exchange International
This site covers radio, electronics and computer simulation.
It includes schematics as well as technical articles.
Freeware and shareware can be downloaded. Links to related
sites are provided.
This site includes analogue, digital and power electronic
circuit diagrams in pdf and png formats with links to other
information including datasheets for components used.
There are technical FAQs under the headings: Audio Video,
Basics, Circuit Design, Components, Consumer Electronics,
Digital, Electrical, Hobby Electronics, Instrumentation, Medical
Electronics, Microcontroller, Power Electronics, Process Control,
Product Design and RF Microwave Technologies. Tutorials on
basic and digital electronics are given. Instruction manuals
and application notes for some products are available. Links
to related sites including technical blogs are provided.
ECE 344. Theory and Fabrication of Integrated Circuit Devices
at the University of Illinois
This university course site covers physical theory, design,
and fabrication of integrated circuit devices. It includes
technical documents in PDF format as well as diagrams which
illustrate lecture content for the course.
There is a bibliography and a lab manual in PDF format. The
site is part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department
at the University of Illinois.
Electronics for Beginners and Intermediate Electronics
This course site includes descriptions and diagrams on general
theory, components and projects dealing with electronics and
There is information on components, circuits and systems.
A CD version of the webpage is available for sale. The site
is provided by Graham Knott a teacher of Electronics and Microcomputing
at Cambridge Regional College.
Electronics Information Online Stepper Motors
EIO is a source associating information with the distribution
of electronics, computer and optical materials.
IEEE Power Electronics Society
The site includes basic descriptions of the operation of power
electronic devices and their applications. Issues of the society
newsletter are available online in PDF format. Some tutorials
and seminars are available in PDF format and as Java applets
and there is a section of ideas for student projects. Events
and conferences are listed along with links to conference
websites. Membership information is provided.
The Power Electronics Society specialises in the development
and application of power electronics technology, for example
in cars, computers, microwave ovens, telephones, stereos,
or power tools.
New Electronics Online
New Electronics Online (NEON) complements the fortnightly
print magazine, aimed primarily at a UK electronics engineering
The magazine, published by Findlay Publications, provides
technology news, abstracts of technical articles, case studies,
best practice tutorials and new product data, with the possibility
to request the fulltext by email. Also available are an events
diary, a section devoted to career development, reference
information, and a link to the JimFinder recruitment site.
The campus section can be used to find dedicated help from
industry sponsors and special offers.
Printed Wiring Board Resource Center
This site provides environmental resources for the PWB industry
including news, a database of conference papers, compliance
information, a plain language guide to state regulations and
a pollution prevention tool.
Also available are details of vendors, facilities, recyclers
and links to related sites. Some of the information on this
site is available to registered users only, but registration
is free. This website is provided by the National Center for
Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) in partnership with the IPC
(an association connecting electronics industries), and is
funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
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Pinouts, Connectors and Cable Descriptions
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History of the transistor. Also includes a Teacher's Guide.
Sponsored by PBS
Scot's Guide to Electronics
Scot's Guide to Electronics is designed to help you learn
about components, circuits, and the use of electronics. You
can explore the contents in whatever order you wish. The emphasis
is on providing information starting at the 'absolute beginners'
Electronics For Beginners
Includes: Theory, Practical Skills And Projects, Components,
Test And Measurement, And Digital Circuits. Sponsored by Graham
Knott, Electronics and Microcomputing teacher at Cambridge
Regional College, Cambridge, England.
The Electronics Workshop
An introduction to electronics Also, tutorials giving important
physics and chemistry concepts related to the field of electronics.
Also, An encyclopedia of electronics with numerous reference
Basics of Electronics
Written by Raymond Miecznik.
Iguana Labs Beginner Tutorials
Internet Learning Resources Electricity and Electronics
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Electrical and Electronic Bulletin System
Bulletin system for professionals and vendors in the electrical
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some technical questions, can anyone give me info? Ask The
Expert meet key people in the industry or make your own industry
presence known. Marketplace(B to B, B to C) new product announcement,
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used or surplus stuff, no business ad please. Manufacturers
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The process of circuit design begins with the specification,
which states the functionality that the finished design
The design process involves moving from the specification
at the start, to a plan that contains all the information
needed to be physically constructed at the end, this normally
happens by passing through a number of stages, although in
very simple circuit it may be done in a single step.  The
process normally begins with the conversion of the specification
into a block diagram of the various functions that the circuit
must perform, at this stage the contents of each block are
not considered, only what each block must do, this is sometimes
referred to as a "black box" design. This approach
allows the possibly very complicated task to be broken into
smaller tasks which may either by tackled in sequence or divided
amongst members of a design team.
Each block is then considered in more detail, still at an
abstract stage, but with a lot more focus on the details of
the electrical functions to be provided. At this or later
stages it is common to require a large amount of research
or mathematical modeling into what is and is not feasible
to achieve. The results of this research may be fed back
into earlier stages of the design process, for example if
it turns out one of the blocks cannot be designed within the
parameters set for it, it may be necessary to alter other
blocks instead. At this point it is also common to start considering
both how to demonstrate that the design does meet the specifications,
and how it is to be tested ( which can include self diagnostic
Finally the individual circuit components are chosen to carry
out each function in the overall design, at this stage the
physical layout and electrical connections of each component
are also decided, this layout commonly taking the form of
artwork for the production of a printed circuit board or Integrated
circuit. This stage is typically extremely time consuming
because of the vast array of choices available. A practical
constraint on the design at this stage is that of standardization,
while a certain value of component may be calculated for use
in some location in a circuit, if that value cannot be purchased
from a supplier, then the problem has still not been solved.
To avoid this a certain amount of 'catalog engineering' can
be applied to solve the more mundane tasks within an overall
Proper design philosophy and structure incorporates economic
and technical considerations and keeps them in balance at
all times, and right from the start. Balance is the key concept
here; just as many delays and pitfalls can come from ill considered
cost cutting as with cost overruns. Good accounting tools
(and a design culture that fosters their use) is imperative
for a successful project. "Manufacturing costs shrink
as design costs soar," is often quoted as a truism in
circuit design, particularly for ICs.
 Verification and testing
Once a circuit has been designed, it must be both verified
and tested. Verification is the process of going through each
stage of a design and ensuring that it will do what the specification
requires it to do. This is frequently a highly mathematical
process and can involve largescale computer simulations of
the design. In any complicated design it is very likely that
problems will be found at this stage and may involve a large
amount of the design work be redone in order to fix them.
Testing is the realworld counterpart to verification, testing
involves physically building at least a prototype of the design
and then (in combination with the test procedures in the specification
or added to it) checking the circuit really does do what it
was designed to.
Prototyping is a means of exploring ideas before an investment
is made in them. Depending on the scope of the prototype and
the level of detail required, prototypes can be built at any
time during the project. Sometimes they are created early
in the project, during the planning and specification phase,
commonly using a process known as breadboarding; that's when
the need for exploration is greatest, and when the time investment
needed is most viable. Later in the cycle packaging mockups
are used to explore appearance and usability, and occasionally
a circuit will need to be modified to take these factors into
As circuit design is the process of working out the physical
form that an electronic circuit will take, the result of the
circuit design process is the instructions on how to construct
the physical electronic circuit. This will normally take the
form of blueprints describing the size, shape, connectors,
etc in use, and artwork or CAM file for manufacturing a printed
circuit board or Integrated circuit.
Any commercial design will normally also include an element
of documentation, the precise nature of this documentation
will vary according to the size and complexity of the circuit
as well as the country in which it is to be used. As a bare
minimum the documentation will normally include at least the
specification and testing procedures for the design and a
statement of compliance with current regulations. In the EU
this last item will normally take the form of a CE Declaration
listing the European directives complied with and naming an
individual responsible for compliance.
Manual working feasibility
 See also
School of MechanoElectronic Engineering
Head of School:
Professor Jia Jianyuan
Phone: (086) 298202452
The School has made considerable efforts in recent years
to foster multidisciplinary courses of undergraduate and postgraduate
education and research in MechanoElectronic Engineering and
Measurement and Control Engineering. The School also encompasses
a wide range of research activities. The School is organized
into two divisions, within which education and research are
organized into strong, and wellfunded groups. The School has
a total of 182 faculty. Among them are 20 professors (4 of
whom are also advisers for Doctorate candidates), 54 associate
professors & senior engineers. Since 1992, 29 students
have been participated in our Doctorate program, and 130 students
have attended our Master's program. At present, 2,100 undergraduates
are studying in this School.
The School has the following divisions:
Departments: Electronic and Mechanics Engineering
Measurement and Control Engineering and Instrument
? Vibration Control
? Antenna Structure Engineering
? Computer Peripheral and Its Measurement
? Theory and Technology of Electromagnetic Coupling
? Protection Technology of Electronic Equipment
? Circuit Signal and System
? Circuit CAA and CAD
? Detection and Measurement Technology and Instrument
? Biomedical Measurement
? Spatial Signal Processing
INFORMATION FOR PROSPECTIVE STUDENTS CURRENT STUDENTS VISITORS
PROGRAMMES UNDERGRADUATE POSTGRADUATE INFORMATION ABOUT STAFF
RESEARCH DIVISIONS SCHOOL OFFICE HEALTH AND SAFETY ANALYTICAL
SERVICE LATEST NEWS WHAT'S NEW RESEARCH NEWS DIARY AND EVENTS
Postgraduate Student Programmes
Research and Postgraduate Training:
PhD Degrees, MSc Degrees and Postgraduate Diplomas
Research in Electronic Engineering and Physics
Please visit specific research web pages for full details.
MSc and Diploma Postgraduate Courses:
Electronic Circuit Design and Manufacture [MSc]
Display Technology, Systems and Applications [MSc]
Electronic Circuit Design and Manufacture [DipEng]
Renewable Energy & Environmental Modelling [MSc] PhD Degrees
There are two normal entry routes to the PhD:
(a) A first or upper secondclass honours degree in physics,
electronic engineering or closely related subject, from a
UK university or equivalent from elsewhere.
(b) A master’s degree (MSc) in physics, electronic engineering
or in a closely related subject.
Applicants whose first language is not English are required
to present evidence of competence either with a minimum TOEFL
score of 580 or an IELTS grade of 6.5.
If you are uncertain about meeting any of these entry requirements,
please contact the Head of Electronic Engineering and Physics.
Students from overseas are advised to apply for an Overseas
Research Studentship (ORS) award, which pays the difference
between the overseas fee and the UK/EU fee. These ORS awards
are limited in number and open to competition from students
of all departments in the College. The ORS application deadline
is usually in April each year.
The Department normally has a number of PhD research studentships
(a) The Research Councils (EPSRC and NERC) award one or more
Studentships annually. These are primarily for UK citizens
and cover the tuition fees and maintenance.
(b) There are also some Research Council Project Studentships
associated with specified research projects. These provide
fees and maintenance for UK and EU citizens.
(c) University of Dundee Research Studentships may be awarded
to students from the UK, EU or from overseas. These awards
are comparable in value to Research Council studentships and
are tenable for up to three years.
Three taught postgraduate courses are offered, leading to
the Master of Science degree. They are designed to provide
expertise in a specialist area or to provide a foundation
for those wishing to undertake research for the PhD degree,
Three taught postgraduate diploma courses are offered in the
Department. These courses are designed to provide expertise
in specialist areas of electronic engineering or physics.
The Student Awards Agency for Scotland (SAAS) operates a
Postgraduate Students’ Allowances Scheme for designated postgraduate
diploma courses providing vocational training.
ADMISSION AND REGISTRATION
Prospective applicants for MSc, or PhD should contact the
University of Dundee Postgraduate Registry for an application
Telephone: 01382 385152
NanoMaterials Research Lab & JEOL Electron Microscopy
& Surface Analysis Center
This Group is concerned with the nanostructure, microstructure
and composition of thin films and surfaces of a wide range
of materials, especially those used in solid state devices.
Equipment available includes transmission and scanning electron
microscopy, xray microanalysis, Auger electron spectroscopy,
xray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry,
and Atomic Force Microscope/Scanning Tunnelling Microscope.
Research projects include:
Nanoenhanced MRI technology
Nanotube manufacture, applications, and analysis
Nanoparticle applications for medical, environmental and structural
Electron beam fabrication of nanostructures
Solar energy materials
For more information visit the NMRL web site or contact Dr.
Microelectronic and Materials
The current research programmes of the Group include:
advanced photomasks for the production of high resolution
microfabrication of miniature structures in silicon
design and fabrication of gas sensors
the design and evaluation of vehicle exhaust catalysts
Much of this work is conducted in high quality purposebuilt
clean room facilities and benefits from close interaction
with the Department of Chemistry. Recently an Advanced Materials
Centre has been established, together with a Centre for the
Design and Fabrication of Novel Gas Sensors, with funding
from Scottish Enterprise and the Scottish Higher Education
Contact: Dr Gari Harris
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MSc/Diploma in Electronic Circuit Design and Manufacture
Aims of the Course:
This oneyear taught MSc course and 9month Diploma course has
been developed to train participants in the design and production
of electronic circuits. The extensive facilities of the Department
of Electronic Engineering and Physics are available to support
the course. These comprise CAD tools and Pentium PCs for the
full design, simulation and layout of electronic circuits.
An electronic manufacturing laboratory primarily for the development
of surface mount technology contains:
IR reflow soldering machine
Micrornat drilling machine