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Circuit design
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The process of circuit design can cover systems ranging from complex electronic systems all the way down to the individual transistors within an integrated circuit. For simple circuits the design process can often be done by one person without needing a planned or structured design process, but for more complex designs, teams of designers following a systematic approach with intelligently guided computer simulation are becoming increasingly common.

Formal circuit design usually involves the following stages:

sometimes, writing the requirement specification after liaising with the customer
writing a technical proposal to meet the requirements of the customer specification
synthesising on paper a schematic circuit diagram, an abstract electrical or electronic circuit that will meet the specifications
calculating the component values to meet the operating specifications under specified conditions
performing simulations to verify the correctness of the design
building a breadboard or other prototype version of the design and testing against specification
making any alterations to the circuit to achieve compliance
choosing a method of construction as well as all the parts and materials to be used
presenting component and layout information to draughtspersons, and layout and mechanical engineers, for prototype production
testing or typetesting a number of prototypes to ensure compliance with customer requirements
signing and approving the final manufacturing drawings
postdesign services (obsolescence of components etc.) specification in terms of functional building blocks

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Proceedings Library
2003 Spring
Symposium H

A Basic Concept of Novel Hybrid OptoElctronic Integrated Systems With Textile Structures
Kuniaki Tanaka

?@According to the situation recognition of a basic limit of electronics expansion in silicon planar technology, one proposal based on a new technology completely different from planar structure is done here.?@The new concept of the technology is ?gtextile structure?h for integrated optoelectronic circuit. The background of the new concept is shown from some historical view point. The concept is also discussed as an optoelectronic united circuit and a ?gClothes?h level system from applicationview point. Characteristics and elemental technology of the textile hybrid system are considered for future development of this concept. Several concrete compositions and characteristics of the proposed system are compared with those of present technology to construct a new electronics system. This proposal is also discussed in flexible electronics concept.

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Electronic circuit design
Thursday, 18 January 2007
Electronics are comprised of a myriad of semiconductor integrated circuits in complex arrangements intended to optimize the operation of the electronics. Integrated circuits (ICs) are electrical circuits that arrange transistors, resistors, capacitors, and other components on a single semiconductor die or substrate, upon which the various components are interconnected to perform a variety of functions. A semiconductor integrated circuit is composed of a plurality of gates. A delay time of each gate is defined as a sum of a delay time occurring within the gate and a delay time occurring in wire connected to the gate. The integrated circuits may be arranged into blocks associated with a particular function. For instance, there may be several blocks involved in only the input/output (I/O) of signals to and from another block or group of blocks, there may be blocks of circuits and logic gates whose primary function is to store instantaneous state of the signals, there may be blocks having a primary purpose of manipulation of the signals using transistors, such as the logic gates and processors. Integrated circuits are used to carry out a wide variety of tasks in many different electrical and electronic components. For these reasons, integrated circuit designs vary according to the function and environment that an integrated circuit is designed to operate in. Integrated circuits ranging from ASICs to full custom ICs include a transistor embedded silicon based structure, and an interconnect structure with metal layers for power routing purposes, namely, the provision of an IC power supply net, and transistor interconnection purposes. An IC power supply net includes a power net for connection to the power ports of an integrated circuit's power consuming entities, and a ground net for connection to their ground ports. Integrated circuits are preferably packaged prior to use in a larger circuit, so as to protect the integrated circuit and provide for electrical interconnections with other parts of the larger circuit that are more easily made. Different types of packaging are used for different types of integrated circuits. For example, one type of integrated circuit is classified as a flip chip. In flip chips, the electrical contacts for the integrated circuit, or bonding pads, are typically distributed across the entire top surface of the integrated circuit, rather than being limited to a few rows around the peripheral edge of the integrated circuit, as is done with some other integrated circuit types. As integrated circuits become more complex, more electrical connections are required between the integrated circuit and the rest of the circuit in which it is used. However, at the same time during which integrated circuits have become more complex, they have also become much smaller. Thus, more electrical connections for an integrated circuit are required, and within a smaller amount of space, than at any previous time. Advances in integrated circuit technology allow for the production of integrated circuit semiconductor devices having millions of gates, with each of the gates made up of multiple transistors. Continuing advances in technology combined with dropping production costs have led to a proliferation of electronic devices that incorporate or use advanced digital circuits including desktop computers, laptop computers, handheld devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), handheld computers, cellular phones, printers, digital cameras, camcorders, facsimile machines and other electronic devices. As electronic components and electronic systems have become more complex, the design of these components and systems has become a more time consuming and demanding task. Software simulation of electronic components and systems has become an important tool for designers.

Electronic circuit design and manufacturing are incredibly complex operations. A typical design flow for integrated circuit design includes many steps that proceed sequentially, with each step depending on the results of the previous steps. A semiconductor integrated circuit has a large number of electronic components, such as transistors, logic gates, diodes, wires, etc., that are fabricated by forming layers of different materials and of different geometric shapes on various regions of a silicon wafer. A circuit design, which begins as a functional description of circuit logic, must be converted into circuit components, such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, and connecting wires, formed from areas of conductors, semiconductors, and insulators on a semiconductor silicon die. The design of integrated circuits is typically performed in three stages: logic design, logic synthesis, and physical design. The first stage is logic design, wherein the desired operation of the integrated circuit is defined. The second stage is logic synthesis, wherein the desired operation is translated into the required circuit elements for a given technology. Design engineers design an integrated circuit by transforming a circuit description of the integrated circuit into geometric descriptions of physical components that create the basic electronic components. The design of an integrated circuit transforms a circuit description into a geometric description called a layout. The process of converting specifications of an integrated circuit into a layout is called the physical design. The physical design assigns the placement of these elements and routing which creates the wire interconnect of these elements on the integrated circuit. Layout of the circuit devices involves the manual or automated layout of the circuit devices based on the sizes of the circuit devices determined by the circuit synthesizer during sizing of the circuit devices. Typically, a layout, or physical design, for an integrated circuit is generated from a schematic. A schematic defines the logical functions performed by the integrated circuit and how the functions are interconnected. The layout defines the physical components used to construct the functions defined in the schematic. This step involves generating a description of the design to be implemented in an appropriate machinereadable form. One of the commonly used methods for specifying a design is a hardware description language (HDL). HDLs, such as the very highspeed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL) or Verilog, are textbased approaches to digital logic design. VHDL and Verilog are allow definition of a Free PCB Design Tools
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ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems
Free access to the tables of contents and abstracts of this CAD publication concerning the specification, design, analysis, simulation, testing, and evaluation of very large scale integrated electronic systems, emphasising a computer science/engineering orientation, are available as part of the ACM Digital Library. Access to the fulltext of past issues (in PDF format) is available to subscribing institutions.
Related articles can be searched for from each article record and some also contain index terms and keywords. Listings of related ACM Special Interest Groups and conferences are also available. Articles can be searched by keywords or author name.

Case technology : ion implantation
This resource guide site includes links to tutorials, publications, university sites, organisations, news, commercial sites and personal home pages covering ion implantation and semiconductors.
The site is provided by Case Technologies Inc.

Chip Directory
The Chip Directory is dedicated to providing information on microchips. There is a numerically ordered listing of microchips and listings by chip function, name or family. Among the other resources at this site is an A to Z listing of chip manufacturers, a listing of chip distributers by geographical region, and pointers to related companies. There are also tips onChip spotting, i.e. spotting the function of a particular chip. A list of mirror sites is provided. A mailing list is available (questions, answers and a discussion forum).
Circuit Exchange International
This site covers radio, electronics and computer simulation. It includes schematics as well as technical articles.
Freeware and shareware can be downloaded. Links to related sites are provided.

Delabs circuits
This site includes analogue, digital and power electronic circuit diagrams in pdf and png formats with links to other information including datasheets for components used.
There are technical FAQs under the headings: Audio Video, Basics, Circuit Design, Components, Consumer Electronics, Digital, Electrical, Hobby Electronics, Instrumentation, Medical Electronics, Microcontroller, Power Electronics, Process Control, Product Design and RF Microwave Technologies. Tutorials on basic and digital electronics are given. Instruction manuals and application notes for some products are available. Links to related sites including technical blogs are provided.

ECE 344. Theory and Fabrication of Integrated Circuit Devices at the University of Illinois
This university course site covers physical theory, design, and fabrication of integrated circuit devices. It includes technical documents in PDF format as well as diagrams which illustrate lecture content for the course.
There is a bibliography and a lab manual in PDF format. The site is part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the University of Illinois.

Electronics for Beginners and Intermediate Electronics
This course site includes descriptions and diagrams on general theory, components and projects dealing with electronics and microcomputing.
There is information on components, circuits and systems. A CD version of the webpage is available for sale. The site is provided by Graham Knott a teacher of Electronics and Microcomputing at Cambridge Regional College.

Electronics Information Online Stepper Motors
EIO is a source associating information with the distribution of electronics, computer and optical materials.

IEEE Power Electronics Society
The site includes basic descriptions of the operation of power electronic devices and their applications. Issues of the society newsletter are available online in PDF format. Some tutorials and seminars are available in PDF format and as Java applets and there is a section of ideas for student projects. Events and conferences are listed along with links to conference websites. Membership information is provided.
The Power Electronics Society specialises in the development and application of power electronics technology, for example in cars, computers, microwave ovens, telephones, stereos, or power tools.

New Electronics Online
New Electronics Online (NEON) complements the fortnightly print magazine, aimed primarily at a UK electronics engineering audience.
The magazine, published by Findlay Publications, provides technology news, abstracts of technical articles, case studies, best practice tutorials and new product data, with the possibility to request the fulltext by email. Also available are an events diary, a section devoted to career development, reference information, and a link to the JimFinder recruitment site. The campus section can be used to find dedicated help from industry sponsors and special offers.

Printed Wiring Board Resource Center
This site provides environmental resources for the PWB industry including news, a database of conference papers, compliance information, a plain language guide to state regulations and a pollution prevention tool.
Also available are details of vendors, facilities, recyclers and links to related sites. Some of the information on this site is available to registered users only, but registration is free. This website is provided by the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) in partnership with the IPC (an association connecting electronics industries), and is funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

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Scot's Guide to Electronics
Scot's Guide to Electronics is designed to help you learn about components, circuits, and the use of electronics. You can explore the contents in whatever order you wish. The emphasis is on providing information starting at the 'absolute beginners' level.

Electronics For Beginners
Includes: Theory, Practical Skills And Projects, Components, Test And Measurement, And Digital Circuits. Sponsored by Graham Knott, Electronics and Microcomputing teacher at Cambridge Regional College, Cambridge, England.

The Electronics Workshop
An introduction to electronics Also, tutorials giving important physics and chemistry concepts related to the field of electronics. Also, An encyclopedia of electronics with numerous reference tables.

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Bulletin system for professionals and vendors in the electrical and electronic industry. Free to use. TOPICS: Help Wanted some technical questions, can anyone give me info? Ask The Expert meet key people in the industry or make your own industry presence known. Marketplace(B to B, B to C) new product announcement, trade leads. Marketplace(C to C) exchange of individuals, used or surplus stuff, no business ad please. Manufacturers and Reps/Agents a place where manufacturers and reps/agents meet. Used Machinery/Equipment of electrical manufacturing Misc. Bulletin Board

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[edit] Specification
The process of circuit design begins with the specification, which states the functionality that the finished design
The design process involves moving from the specification at the start, to a plan that contains all the information needed to be physically constructed at the end, this normally happens by passing through a number of stages, although in very simple circuit it may be done in a single step. [2] The process normally begins with the conversion of the specification into a block diagram of the various functions that the circuit must perform, at this stage the contents of each block are not considered, only what each block must do, this is sometimes referred to as a "black box" design. This approach allows the possibly very complicated task to be broken into smaller tasks which may either by tackled in sequence or divided amongst members of a design team.

Each block is then considered in more detail, still at an abstract stage, but with a lot more focus on the details of the electrical functions to be provided. At this or later stages it is common to require a large amount of research or mathematical modeling into what is and is not feasible to achieve.[3] The results of this research may be fed back into earlier stages of the design process, for example if it turns out one of the blocks cannot be designed within the parameters set for it, it may be necessary to alter other blocks instead. At this point it is also common to start considering both how to demonstrate that the design does meet the specifications, and how it is to be tested ( which can include self diagnostic tools ).[4]

Finally the individual circuit components are chosen to carry out each function in the overall design, at this stage the physical layout and electrical connections of each component are also decided, this layout commonly taking the form of artwork for the production of a printed circuit board or Integrated circuit. This stage is typically extremely time consuming because of the vast array of choices available. A practical constraint on the design at this stage is that of standardization, while a certain value of component may be calculated for use in some location in a circuit, if that value cannot be purchased from a supplier, then the problem has still not been solved. To avoid this a certain amount of 'catalog engineering' can be applied to solve the more mundane tasks within an overall design.

[edit] Costs
Proper design philosophy and structure incorporates economic and technical considerations and keeps them in balance at all times, and right from the start. Balance is the key concept here; just as many delays and pitfalls can come from ill considered cost cutting as with cost overruns. Good accounting tools (and a design culture that fosters their use) is imperative for a successful project. "Manufacturing costs shrink as design costs soar," is often quoted as a truism in circuit design, particularly for ICs.

[edit] Verification and testing
Once a circuit has been designed, it must be both verified and tested. Verification is the process of going through each stage of a design and ensuring that it will do what the specification requires it to do. This is frequently a highly mathematical process and can involve largescale computer simulations of the design. In any complicated design it is very likely that problems will be found at this stage and may involve a large amount of the design work be redone in order to fix them.

Testing is the realworld counterpart to verification, testing involves physically building at least a prototype of the design and then (in combination with the test procedures in the specification or added to it) checking the circuit really does do what it was designed to.

[edit] Prototyping
Prototyping is a means of exploring ideas before an investment is made in them. Depending on the scope of the prototype and the level of detail required, prototypes can be built at any time during the project. Sometimes they are created early in the project, during the planning and specification phase, commonly using a process known as breadboarding; that's when the need for exploration is greatest, and when the time investment needed is most viable. Later in the cycle packaging mockups are used to explore appearance and usability, and occasionally a circuit will need to be modified to take these factors into account.

[edit] Results
As circuit design is the process of working out the physical form that an electronic circuit will take, the result of the circuit design process is the instructions on how to construct the physical electronic circuit. This will normally take the form of blueprints describing the size, shape, connectors, etc in use, and artwork or CAM file for manufacturing a printed circuit board or Integrated circuit.

[edit] Documentation
Any commercial design will normally also include an element of documentation, the precise nature of this documentation will vary according to the size and complexity of the circuit as well as the country in which it is to be used. As a bare minimum the documentation will normally include at least the specification and testing procedures for the design and a statement of compliance with current regulations. In the EU this last item will normally take the form of a CE Declaration listing the European directives complied with and naming an individual responsible for compliance.[5]

Manual working feasibility

[edit] See also
School of MechanoElectronic Engineering
Head of School:
Professor Jia Jianyuan
Phone: (086) 298202452
EMail: jyjia@xidian.edu.cn

The School has made considerable efforts in recent years to foster multidisciplinary courses of undergraduate and postgraduate education and research in MechanoElectronic Engineering and Measurement and Control Engineering. The School also encompasses a wide range of research activities. The School is organized into two divisions, within which education and research are organized into strong, and wellfunded groups. The School has a total of 182 faculty. Among them are 20 professors (4 of whom are also advisers for Doctorate candidates), 54 associate professors & senior engineers. Since 1992, 29 students have been participated in our Doctorate program, and 130 students have attended our Master's program. At present, 2,100 undergraduates are studying in this School.

The School has the following divisions:
Departments: Electronic and Mechanics Engineering
Measurement and Control Engineering and Instrument
? Vibration Control
? Antenna Structure Engineering
? Computer Peripheral and Its Measurement
? Theory and Technology of Electromagnetic Coupling
? Protection Technology of Electronic Equipment
? Circuit Signal and System
? Circuit CAA and CAD
? Detection and Measurement Technology and Instrument
? Biomedical Measurement
? Spatial Signal Processing
Research and Postgraduate Training:
PhD Degrees, MSc Degrees and Postgraduate Diplomas
Research in Electronic Engineering and Physics

Please visit specific research web pages for full details.

MSc and Diploma Postgraduate Courses:
Electronic Circuit Design and Manufacture [MSc]
Display Technology, Systems and Applications [MSc]
Electronic Circuit Design and Manufacture [DipEng]
Renewable Energy & Environmental Modelling [MSc] PhD Degrees
There are two normal entry routes to the PhD:

(a) A first or upper secondclass honours degree in physics, electronic engineering or closely related subject, from a UK university or equivalent from elsewhere.

(b) A master’s degree (MSc) in physics, electronic engineering or in a closely related subject.

Applicants whose first language is not English are required to present evidence of competence either with a minimum TOEFL score of 580 or an IELTS grade of 6.5.

If you are uncertain about meeting any of these entry requirements, please contact the Head of Electronic Engineering and Physics.

Students from overseas are advised to apply for an Overseas Research Studentship (ORS) award, which pays the difference between the overseas fee and the UK/EU fee. These ORS awards are limited in number and open to competition from students of all departments in the College. The ORS application deadline is usually in April each year.

The Department normally has a number of PhD research studentships available.

(a) The Research Councils (EPSRC and NERC) award one or more Studentships annually. These are primarily for UK citizens and cover the tuition fees and maintenance.

(b) There are also some Research Council Project Studentships associated with specified research projects. These provide fees and maintenance for UK and EU citizens.

(c) University of Dundee Research Studentships may be awarded to students from the UK, EU or from overseas. These awards are comparable in value to Research Council studentships and are tenable for up to three years.

Three taught postgraduate courses are offered, leading to the Master of Science degree. They are designed to provide expertise in a specialist area or to provide a foundation for those wishing to undertake research for the PhD degree,

Three taught postgraduate diploma courses are offered in the Department. These courses are designed to provide expertise in specialist areas of electronic engineering or physics.

The Student Awards Agency for Scotland (SAAS) operates a Postgraduate Students’ Allowances Scheme for designated postgraduate diploma courses providing vocational training.

Prospective applicants for MSc, or PhD should contact the University of Dundee Postgraduate Registry for an application form.

Telephone: 01382 385152

NanoMaterials Research Lab & JEOL Electron Microscopy & Surface Analysis Center
This Group is concerned with the nanostructure, microstructure and composition of thin films and surfaces of a wide range of materials, especially those used in solid state devices. Equipment available includes transmission and scanning electron microscopy, xray microanalysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, xray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Atomic Force Microscope/Scanning Tunnelling Microscope.

Research projects include:
Nanoenhanced MRI technology
Nanotube manufacture, applications, and analysis
Nanoparticle applications for medical, environmental and structural applications
Electron beam fabrication of nanostructures
Solar energy materials

For more information visit the NMRL web site or contact Dr. Gari Harris

Microelectronic and Materials
The current research programmes of the Group include:
advanced photomasks for the production of high resolution integrated circuits
microfabrication of miniature structures in silicon
design and fabrication of gas sensors
the design and evaluation of vehicle exhaust catalysts
Much of this work is conducted in high quality purposebuilt clean room facilities and benefits from close interaction with the Department of Chemistry. Recently an Advanced Materials Centre has been established, together with a Centre for the Design and Fabrication of Novel Gas Sensors, with funding from Scottish Enterprise and the Scottish Higher Education Funding Council.

Contact: Dr Gari Harris
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MSc/Diploma in Electronic Circuit Design and Manufacture
Aims of the Course:
This oneyear taught MSc course and 9month Diploma course has been developed to train participants in the design and production of electronic circuits. The extensive facilities of the Department of Electronic Engineering and Physics are available to support the course. These comprise CAD tools and Pentium PCs for the full design, simulation and layout of electronic circuits. An electronic manufacturing laboratory primarily for the development of surface mount technology contains:
IR reflow soldering machine
Micrornat drilling machine

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