|Pb-Free lead free PCB,RoHS compliant,UL PCBA manufacturing,Electronics
circuit manufacturer, Shenzhen,CN China
White Paper: RoHS compliance and Pb-free capability: One in
Tuesday, 07 November 2006
Absolutely not. Though many in the industry would lead you to
believe that a RoHS compliant product ensures lead-free process
capability, in fact, nothing could be further from the truth.
RoHS compliance simply means that a product or a material does
not contain any of the hazardous substances banned under the
legislation. But, just because a material is free of the RoHS
list of excluded substances, doesn’t mean it can withstand processing
at the elevated temperatures of lead-free. There are countless
examples of compliance versus capability but, in this case,
we’ll take a look at surface mount adhesives (SMAs).
Surface mount adhesives have been part of the assembly landscape
for so long that they have almost become an afterthought.
Until recently, these “glues」 as they are so often referred
to, were just expected to perform as required and, for the
most part, they did. Older generation materials required a
fairly high peak cure temperature of between 140° to 150°C.
But some components – particularly some lower cost components
– heavily relied upon in the high-volume consumer electronics
market could not withstand the heat input required for adhesive
cure and, thus, reliability was compromised. This led to the
engineering of SMAs with lower cure temperatures that utilized
a very unique approach so as to enable sufficient cured strength
for maximum performance during soldering. Based on these requirements,
a new formulation was developed that maintained historical
chipbonder properties, yet allowed for a significantly lower
cure temperature – as low as 85°C. The combination of lower
cure temperature, material strength and reduced rate of temperature
rise of these newer generation materials dramatically reduced
thermal shock and improved reliability, enabling in-line,
automated assembly of temperature-sensitive components.
Lower temperature cure adhesives became the industry standard,
essentially resolving the dilemma of automated processing
of temperature-sensitive components and allowing reliable,
in-line surface-mount assembly for a wide range of devices.
And, while the benefits of these materials were many, the
advent of lead-free manufacturing pushed them to their performance
limits and it became clear that yet another adhesive innovation
would be required to meet the demands of lead-free process
conditions. With years of Pb-free research behind them, the
materials scientists at Henkel worked diligently to develop
an adhesive that maintained the low temperature cure, yet
could withstand the elevated process temperatures of lead-free.
Henkel’s next –generation SMA, Loctite? 3629 delivers all
of the capabilities of former generation low-temperature cure
adhesives, yet is capable of retaining its strength during
high-temperature soldering processes. Loctite 3629’s advanced
formulation maintains the benefits of lower energy input for
cure, but also possesses lower yield points to enable faster
dispensing and printing ability and higher adhesive strength
to handle the extreme temperatures of lead free and the pull
imposed on components resulting from the greater surface-tension
of lead-free alloys.
RoHS Compliant and Pb-free Capable: The Best of Both Worlds
Symposium E: Pb-Free and RoHS-Compliant Materials and Processes
April 11 - 12, 2007
Chairs Carol A. Handwerker Purdue University
Katsuaki Suganuma Osaka University
Heidi L. Reynolds Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Jasbir Bath Solectron Corporation
SESSION E1: Global RoHS and Environmental Regulations
Chairs: Jasbir Bath and Carol Handwerker
Wednesday Morning, April 11, 2007
Room 3005 (Moscone West)
8:30 AM *E1.1
Environmental Regulations and Materials Technology in the
Electronics Industry Robert C. Pfahl, International Electronics
Manufacturing Inititiative-iNEMI, Herndon, Virginia.
9:00 AM *E1.2
Management Methods for Controlling Pollution by Electronic
Information Products - China RoHS. David Towne, Sun Microsystems,
Inc., Menlo Park, California.
9:30 AM *E1.3
SESSION E2: Tin Whisker Nucleation and Growth
Chair: Heidi Reynolds
Wednesday Afternoon, April 11, 2007
Room 3005 (Moscone West)
1:30 PM E2.1
Sn whisker: Understanding and Prevention? John Osenbach, Agere
systems, Allentwon, Pennsylvania.
2:00 PM E2.2
An Electrical Characterization of Tin Whiskers Robert D. Hilty
and Ned Corman; Technology, Tyco Electronics, Harrisburg,
2:30 PM BREAK
3:00 PM *E2.3
Sn Whisker Formation: Stress Generation at the Sn-Cu Interface.
Gery Ryan Stafford, Carlos Beauchamp, Ugo Bertocci, Espen
Sandnes and William Boettinger; Metallurgy Division, NIST,
3:30 PM *E2.4
Interaction of Stress, Intermetallic Formation and Defect
Kinetics in Sn Whisker Formation. Eric Chason, Lucine Reinbold,
Nitin Jadhav, Vernorris Kelly, Jae Wook Shin, Eric Buchovecky,
Ramanarayan Hariharaputran and Sharvan Kumar; Division of
Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
4:00 PM E2.5
Distribution and evolution of stress in Sn layers on Cu Nitin
Jadhav, Lucine Reinbold, Vernorris Kelly, Jae Wook Shin, Anthony
Johnson, Michael Task, Sharvan Kumar and Eric Chason; Brown
University, Providence, Rhode Island.
4:15 PM E2.6
Characterization and Modeling of Intermetallic Growth Kinetics
in Sn Layers on Cu. Eric Buchovecky, Lucine Reinbold, Ramanarayan
Hariharaputran, Eric Chason and Sharvan Kumar; Division of
Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
4:30 PM Next Steps: "Open Discussion" of Fundamentals
of Tin Whisker Formation and Needed Critical Experiments.RoHS
Due to increased worldwide environmental concerns, the need
for lead free solutions in electronic components and systems
is receiving increasing attention within the semiconductor
and electronics industries. Lattice is fully supportive of
the various industry efforts throughout the world to phase
out the use of lead and other undesirable elements from electronic
equipment materials and manufacturing processes.
Lattice remains committed to continually reducing its impact
on the world's natural environment and works closely with
our customers and suppliers to identify and rapidly eliminate
hazardous substances from its products.
Environmental protection is more than just meeting standards.
All corporate activities must be implemented with the environment
in mind. Lattice's goal is to develop all new products such
that they reduce space, materials and power consumption for
an equivalent electrical function. In turn, this allows our
customers to continually reduce their impact on the environment.
ISO14001 is an international standard for environmental management
systems. Companies that are ISO14001 registered have demonstrated
an internal program for the management of hazardous waste
and implementation of recycling programs. This international
recognition certifies a company's commitment to preserving
the natural environment. All Lattice subcontract manufacturers
are ISO14001 registered, and are routinely reviewed to ensure
Lead Free and RoHS Compliant Packaging Initiative
Pb Free Central
Design & Layout
Pb Free Tips
You Are Here: Pb Free Assembly
An ideal lead-free transition team has trained personnel in
purchasing, inventory management, fabrication and process
control. Purchasing and procurement specialists are versatile
enough to fully understand and track a variety of changing
conventions association with Pb-free assembly. Inventory personnel
understand differences between eutectic and lead-free components.
Particularly, they are attentive to the adverse consequences
of mistaking one for the other. They also maintain stringent
control over incoming vendor components from a variety of
supplier bases; and once in house, segregate those components
and maintain proper inventory of them.
There are differences between eutectic and lead-free assemblies,
not only in terms of different thermal profiles, inspection
and rework criteria, but also because lead-free assemblies
tend to have latent defects that are absent in eutectic assemblies.
One of those defects is “whisker formation.」 This phenomenon
is created when tin whiskers or electrically conductive, hair-like
structures grow outward from tin, zinc, gold, cadmium, indium
Solder joint embrittlement is created over time as a result
of a latent defect. This is due to the absence of lead in
the joint, which makes the remaining alloy hard. Over time,
this hardening alloy can show signs of cracking and micro-cracking.
Signs of fatigue are more prevalent in PCBs subjected to motion-
or vibration-based applications. This latent defect places
greater pressures on process controls and require tighter
assembly re-work and inspection tolerances.
Statistical Process Control is used in manufacturing process
to anticipate and prevent any variation of critical characteristics
and reach best quality targets.
Continuous improvement approach based on root cause identification
and lessons learned from our day to day activities is deployed
systematically inside our company.
Development of quality supplier performance with permanent
cooperation is the key to get best manufacturing process control
using preventive quality methods and tools.
Training all the employees on a regular basis is part of
our policy for implementing a zero defect culture in the company.
Environmental Policy and commitment to sustainable development
HUMIREL products and services are aimed at improving the quality
of life for everyone, anywhere in the world. We commit to
actively work for the protection of the environment throughout
our day to day activities. Using integrated quality and environmental
ISO14001- compliant Management System, HUMIREL is committed
? Design and manufacture products and technologies that contribute
or enable a sustainable development of the planet.
? Achieve and maintain compliance with environmental laws
? Infuse a fighting spirit among its employees towards reducing
the impact of their work on the environment.
? Prevent pollution and optimize the use of natural resources.
? Implement an assessment system to ensure continuous improvement
in our daily activities.
What is RoHS ?
The European Union published the Restriction of the Use of
Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic
Equipment Directive ( RoHS Directive, 2002/95/EC) on February
13, 2003. This Directive takes effect on July 1, 2006, and
with some exceptions (Annex) totally bans the use of (Article
polybrominated biphenyls (PBB's),
polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE's),
in electronic and electrical products and equipments.
This directive will become applicable to producers who are
selling Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) in European
Countries and that fall under the following categories:
IT and communication equipments
Electrical and electronic tools (with the exception of large
scale stationary industrial tools
Toys, leisure and sport equipments
Medical devices (with exemption of implanted and infected
products) and monitoring and control instrumentation are not
under the directive scope.
Definition of max contents
Council Decision COM(2004) 606 (adopted Sept. 23, 2004), amends
the Annex of the RoHS Directive to permit-- in any application
that was not already exempted--a homogenous material to contain
a maximum of:
0.1% (1000PPM) lead by weight.
0.1% mercury by weight.
0.01% cadmium by weight.
0.1% hexavalent chromium by weight.
0.1% polybrominated biphenyls (PBB's) by weight.
0.1% polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE's) by weight.
What does "homogenous material" mean?
Homogenous material is defined as material that cannot be
“mechanically disjointed」 into different materials. 」Mechanically
disjointed」 means that the materials cannot in principal be
separated into other materials by mechanical methods such
as unscrewing, cutting, crushing, grinding or abrasive processes.
A clean separation is not a requirement and this definition
is intended only to indicate that materials such as plastics,
metals, and coatings, etc., should not contain the restricted
substances.. RoHS Compliance Plan
To Our Customers:
Aries Electronics, Inc. is committed to RoHS compliance and
will make every effort to assist our customers by making available
as much information as possible. This information will continue
to change as additional data becomes available.
The Restriction on Hazardous Substances (RoHS) and Waste
Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) directives are
aimed at reducing the hazardous materials content in electronic
products as well as increasing the recycling efforts for these
products and take effect July 1, 2006. RoHS specifically bans
or restricts the use of lead, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent
chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and polybrominated
biphenyl ethers (PBDE).
Cadmium, Mercury, Hexavalent Chromium, Polybrominated Biphenyls
& Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
To the best of our knowledge and belief Aries Electronics,
Inc products do not contain cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium,
polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and polybrominated diphenyl
ethers (PBDEs) as either intentionally added ingredients or
as unintended impurities in concentrations exceeding EU regulatory
limits. This statement is based upon information provided
by our raw material suppliers. Please be advised that Aries
Electronics, Inc. does not analyze its products for substances
not purposely added. Trace amounts of any chemical and substance
might be found as impurities in any product, therefore Aries
Electronics, Inc. assumes no liability in connection with
this information. Aries Electronics, Inc. does not use these
substances in production processes.
Nearly all contact and pin materials are RoHS compliant,
although some may contain small quantities of lead within
the 4.0% by weight exemption allowed by the RoHS directive.
The gold and matte tin plating used on Aries Electronics,
Inc contacts and pins are RoHS compliant. Products that are
gold and matte tin plated can withstand the elevated temperatures
and long dwell times required for lead-free reflow.
Aries Electronics, Inc. has a broad product offering, however
we are targeting a complete changeover of parts that are planned
for RoHS compliance by as early as September 1, 2005 and plan
to be operationally compliant on or before the July, 2006
deadline. Due to the uncertain timetable for the availability
of RoHS compliant components, we are unable to specify firm
release dates for the RoHS compliant products. Once RoHS compliant
parts are available, the “Product Data Sheet」 section on
our website will be updated with the corresponding information.
The bottom right hand corner of the data sheet will contain
a Lead Free/RoHS Compliant symbol indicating that the products
on that specific data sheet are now available as RoHS Compliant.withstand
the elevated temperatures used in lead-free reflow soldering
processes. We are in the process of converting to a UL 94V-0
4/6 nylon material which will withstand the 260°C peak reflow
temperature. Regarding the pins and contacts, we are in the
process of converting our existing tin lead plating to matte
tin. A compliant gold plating option is also available on
some of our products (Ref: Product Data Sheet for details).
Correct-A-Chip? (CAC) products are not RoHS compliant at
this time, and are not intended to be converted as standard
practice. If you are interested in an RoHS compliant version,
our sales department will be happy to work with you in determining
feasibility, special part numbers, pricing, and ordering requirements.
Cable assemblies are in the process of being converted to
RoHS compliance. We are working with our cable suppliers in
obtaining components (wire, insulation, jacket compounds,
etc.) that meet the requirements of the RoHS/WEEE directives.
As with other products, once the specific cable family is
converted, the corresponding product data sheet will be revised.
Refer to the specific cable “product data sheet」 for additional
Customer Service and Support RoHS Lead-Free Test and Inspection
Legislation is driving the need for lead-free and environmentally
friendly material sets in the printed circuit board industry.
The RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) directive commonly
know as the 'lead-free' directive. This directive restricts
the usage of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium Hexavalent chromium (Chromium
VI or Cr6+), Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) , Polybrominated
diphenyl ether (PBDE).
This new material set means questions about the reliability
of products, process issues, and many other considerations
that have been long established for tin-lead solders. In general
lead-free is a less forgiving process, which means that defect
levels are likely to increase and the need for inspection
for process control and defect containment will increase.
The creation of www.lead-freetest.com was to help customers
with gathering lead-free /RoHS data, paper/articles, events,
resources, etc. This website is a compilation of what is happening
in lead-free in the industry and is a great resource for customers
of all types. This valuable resource is available as a free
service to our valued customers and to others with an interest
A Study of Lead-Free Wave Soldering
(AIM) As lead-free in wave soldering increases, questions
about copper dissolution into lead-free alloys have arisen.
This study explores this question and provides data and discussion
to support the industry issue.
Fragility of Pb-free Solder Joints
(SMTnet) Recent investigations have revealed that Pb-free
solder joints may be fragile, prone to premature interfacial
failure particularly under shock loading, as initially formed
or tend to become so under moderate thermal aging. This study
explores this in depth.
RoHS Compliance and Pb-free Capability: One in the Same?
(SMT) Though many in the industry would lead you to believe
that a RoHS compliant product ensure lead-free process capability,
in fact, nothing could be further from the truth. This paper
explores this question in detail.
Agilent statement on the Restriction of Hazardous Substances
(Agilent Technologies) Agilent Technologies provides a drawer
statement to customers on the RoHS situation.
China RoHS: Ready or not, it’s here
(Semiconductor International) Editorial style comments on
the China RoHS transition.Right Recipe Can Cut Pb-Free PCB
Written by Administrator
Tuesday, 01 July 2008
ROMULUS, MI – The right combination of materials, finishes
and solders can have a marked effect on bare board cost and
Indeed, according to Jim Kelch, director of sales/marketing,
at PWB fabricator Saturn Electronics Corp., the right recipe
can cut board costs as much as 30%.
In a Webinar Monday, Kelch, along with representatives from
Isola Group and Florida CirTech, laid out how.
The move to Pb-free creates a host of indirect cost drivers,
said Kelch, including increased scrap rate (due to delamination
and decreased solderability) and the need for additional storage
and handling steps (generally, pre-baking).
The response, according to Kelch, is designers are calling
out FR-4 laminates with 180° Tg and 340° Td (time to decomposition
at temperature). But while FR-4 is RoHS compliant, it is not
always right for Pb-free assembly, he explained, while 180°
Tg does not guarantee adequate Td.
Saturn’s proposed solution: mid-grade Pb-free capable laminates
that meet IPC-4101/99 (filled) or IPC-4101/124 (unfilled),
with a minimum 150° Tg and 325° Td.
The benefits, he says, are a 15 to 20% cost savings on raw
materials; lower moisture absorption (0.10 to 0.25%); higher
interlaminate adhesion (peel strength = T-288 >10 min.),
and high copper-to-laminate peel strength.
Dave Coppens, technical account manager at laminate supplier
Isola, discussed test results for the company’s IS400 product,
which reportedly performed well under tests for TGA, DSC,
Td, weight loss % by TGA, peel strength and 6X reflow.
– Pb-free HASL: 32%
– Immersion silver: 15%
– Immersion tin: 0%
– RoHS compliant: 21%