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If you overexpose the board, the light will penetrate the black area and give bad results.
Don't touch the board during the exposing.

After 3-4 minutes I turn off the UV-lamp and remove the board to let it cool down.
It needs to cool down because it is quit hot (30-40 degree Celcius) and if you put a hot board into the developing liquid (water solution of NaOH) the reaction will got to fast and you loose the lines.
So, let the board cool down (shake it) and then put into the developing liquid.

When you buy the NaOH powder, you can read the label how much mixing water you need.
If you think the developing reaction goes to slow (not at all) try to warm the solution just a little.
Also here you need to experiment a bit.
When I mix the NaOH I get about 2 litre. Then I use some "dummy" boards to test the solution.
When you test the "dummy" boards make sure you expose it to UV light as it would be a real board.
During the developing phase you will see the pattern from the films grow on the board.
For me the developing phase takes about 1-2 minute then I shower the board with fresh water to remove NaOH remains.

Etch the board
There are several different solution used for etching. I advice you to buy a etch kit with powder.
The etching process will be fastest when the solution is warm.
I put the board into a plastic jar filled with etch solution.
I then put the jar into a pan with water. I warm the pan on the stove until the water almost boils.
The heat will transfer into the jar and the etching process will work great.
I move (shake) the jar to speed up the etching time.

The etching time is about 5-10 minutes.

Finnished board
Here you can see the finished circuit boards with edges and lines sharp as razorblade.
All you need to do now is to clean the board with Acetone to remove the protective plastic film.

Final word
A good board will improve the quality of your projects,
Specially if you are into RF homebrewing.
Now you know how to make PCB of your own.
You need to buy some stuff, but I assure you the result will be great!
Click here to see photo and read how to solder SOIC and smd components.

Many people has written to me and asked about the UV lamp.
I advice you to go to a electronic shop and ask for UV light (tube) and they will help you.
This is what Rafael Santos from Portugal did and I want to show his great UV-box.

Rafael say "They told me that the lamp TL 05 is great to do PCB's ,
this lamp is used in stores to kill fly's, they go against the lamp and bzzz....."
Watch and enjoy...*smiling*
I think his work will inspire all of you to build your own UV box.


You can always mail me if there is anything unclear.
I wish you good luck with your projects and thanks for visit my page.How to make your own PCB
Printed Circuit Boards -- how to make nice looking ones of your own designs

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There are a handful of ways available to the hobbyist to turn your own designs into PCBs. They yield results of different qualities, where the quality seems to be inversely proportional to the amount of mess you make (in most cases), and amount of money you spend (in all cases). I'll talk a bit about each, and then compare them all at the bottom of the page.

Any process that involves making your own board will have a number of steps in common. At a high level, here's what you're doing:

Procure a bare board (coated with a thin layer of copper on either one or both sides). Most methods will use a plain board; photolithography requires one coated with special light-sensitive chemicals.

If you have a plain board, scrape off any burrs along the board edge (you want a flat copper surface; I use a fine file for this), and clean it well to remove oxidation and finger oils. I start with fine steel wool, follow up with denatured alcohol to remove any oils or grease, and finish by buffing with a very clean towel. From this point on, you'll want to handle your board only by the edges to avoid getting finger oils on it.


Design your circuit. Depending on how you plan on actually producing the board (read on...), your design will take one of a number of different forms -- a hand-drawn set of lines on paper, a computer-drawn diagram, a design file you'll send off to a manufacturing house...


If you'll be producing the board yourself, transfer your design of desired copper traces to the plated side(s) of your board; the transferred traces are resistant to your etching liquid (more on this later). Most home-brew board production methods differ only in how they accomplish this step. If you are generating a design via computer, you'll have to put some thought into which way your printed design faces (i.e., printed "right way up" vs. mirrored). There are enough ways to approach this that I split this information out onto its own page here.


Etch the board you've traced -- here, an etchant chemical removes all non-masked copper; after it's done, give the board a good wash under running water to remove all traces of the etchant. In most cases, the etchant will either be Ferric Chloride or Ammonium Persulfate (Ferric Chloride is more popular). These are available in both liquid (i.e., premixed) and powder form; the powder is generally quite a bit cheaper, but requires care when mixing.

Also note that etching proceeds faster with (1) warmer etchant, and (2) agitation. Along with saving you time, fast etching also produces better edge quality and consistent line widths, so fast is good in this step. I pre-heat Ferric Chloride etchant in the microwave for 40 seconds or so (you want it hot enough to be barely-comfortable to the touch), and slosh it around by hand as it's doing its work. An old plastic freezer container (with lid) is good for this (it allows for vigorous agitation, without making you wear any of the etchant). You can keep the etchant warm by putting the etching tray inside a larger tray or sink filled with boiling water.

Note that you don't want to get Ferric Chloride solution too hot, since it will start generating Hydrochloric acid fumes if you Design and Fabricate Custom Printed Circuit Boards - PCB's - and get instant quotes from Pad2Pad!

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5. Finishing up

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Introduction
This document describes my personal opinion on how to manufacture the double sided PCBs. Other ways of doing this exist, and this only describes the way I find most efficient in low volume PCB manufacture. This page does NOT tell you how to design a PCB. Throughout this page it is asumed that you are building a Quad Camera Frame Grabber, but of course the same methods and procedures apply to other PCB's as well (of course you need the PCB design and drill files applicable to that project instead of the ones linked to here).
The PCB design is eurocard size based (160mm by 100mm), and two complete QCFG PCB's are fitted on this surface. If you want to make only one, you will have to edit the PCB designs provided accordingly, and use a 80 mm by 100 mm PCB instead. The quality of the finished PCB strongly depends on the quality of the UV-photographic resin coated PCB and its AGE. Until recently I used to coat my own PCBs with liquid UV-sensitive resin, or use non-branded generic presensitized PCB's, and I usually ended up with a pile of defective PCBs. To offset this I have grown accustomed to manufacturing a small batch (this saves time setting up equipment, but is less efficient in materials), ending up with one good PCB for every two copper-clad epoxy-fiberboard coasters. After (just recently) having found a GOOD brand of pre-sensitised material, having virtually 100% yield (none out of the 20 eurocard PCBs I've made the last half year were defective) I strongly recommend using "BUNGARD-original" PCBs. I am NOT associated in any way with this manufacturer, NOR involved in trade of these PCBs. I do not get paid in any way for these recommendations, it is my own sincery opinion that they are good. These (european manufacturer) boards can in Europe be ordered through CONRAD electronics in germany (www.conrad.de); I don't know about the rest of the world.


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1. Caution:
Please note that making these PCBs involves some potentialy hazardous chemicals and tools. It is your own resposibility to take suitable precautionary actions! If you do not know what these suitable precautionary actions are, DO NOT use these chemicals and tools. I recommend wearing protective goggles, clothing, and chemical resistant gloves all the time when handling these chemicals, tools and PCBs!. In some countries the use of some of the tools and chemicals may be bound to restrictions, such as proper waste disposal and licenses, or may even be forbidden. It is your own resposibility to act according to your countries/states laws and regulations. A complete list of protective equipment and procedures nescessary or recommended is NOT included in this discription; it provides just some basic hints and reminders.
I want to make some points especially clear: both NaOH (caustic soda) and Iron Cloride are very unhealthy. Caustic soda dissolves your clothing, skin, and tissue (amongst others), and Iron Cloride permanently stains it yellow (amongst others). Do not use use NaOH in conjuction with metal (especially aluminium) containers or equipment. Do not use Iron Chloride in conjunction with metal, as this may dissolve/react or become stained. Iron Chloride etches stainless steel! Some plastics may dissolve in or react with Iron Chloride (e.g. POM) or Caustic soda (e.g. some floor coverings/LINOLEUM)
Find out what you need to do in case of an accident BEFORE THE ACCIDENT ACTUALLY HAPPENS. Find out what measures to take when your skin or eyes come in to contact with these chemicals, and find out what to do when they are ingested. Like any dangerous goods they should be kept out of reach of children, preferably in a locked cabinet. Use safety caps. Mark bottles containing chemicals with their names, their "strength" (kg/L or Mol/L), their date of preparation, and with a notice stating that they are dangerous to skin & eyes and should never be ingested. Use strong chemical resistant PLASTIC containers, as glass may (more easily) break in case of chemical reactions, overheating or wrong handling. Make sure your labels and ink resist the chemicals as well!. Do not store the chemicals in a place where it may potentially become warm, such as a car or in direct sunlight.
Please note that the UV-light used to expose the UV-sesitive resin coated PCB's is not exactly healthy either. Wear suitable UV-protective glasses, UV-protective gloves, long sleeves, and keep skin and eye exposure times as short as possible, or even better prevent it altogether by using a light tight "UV-PCB-exposure-box". The exact type of light/lamp used determines how dangerous the UV light is; if the manufaturer does not explicitly state that the lamp is safe, don't assume it is. I've seen people use UV lamps designed to sterilize equipment, and I've seen peoples skin turn crispy after just a few minutes exposure. Exposure of the eyes to UV light may lead to cataract.
The dust released during cutting and drilling PCBs is detrimental to your health as well, and may (amongst others) lead to skin irritation, sore eyes and various lung diseases. Avoid contact as much as possible. Never inhale the dust; wear a good quality dust protective mouth cover. I prefer to use a damp piece of cloth to wipe my work-area clean regulary. After use, before it dries up again, I dispose of this piece of cloth in a proper way.

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2. Materials and tools list:
To make this PCB you need:
1 good quality double sided UV-sensitive photoresist coated PCB, eurocard size, 1.5mm thick epoxy fibre base material, 35um copper cladding.
NaOH pellets (these are used in Holland as chemical kitchen-drain-deblockers), 1 tablespoon for 1 L developer
warm and cold running water.
Iron chloride pellets, about 1kg dissolved in 1 L water is enough for 1.7 L etchant, which is enough for (depends on design) about 40 PCB's.
A4 size overhead projector transparancy(s), inkjet compatible
1 Inkjet printer, EPSON STYLUS COLOUR is fine, others I do not know. SOME deskjet printers may require software modifications or special software in order to produce usable transparancies; these changes are beyond the scope of this document.
2 pieces of (scrap) unused PCB board, 1.5mm thick, approximately 50mm by 160mm
1 UV PCB-exposure-box (lamp mounted in a box with a glass plate on top of which you lay your PCB, with a light-tight cover) preferably with timer.
2 developer trays about 200mm by 300mm used to develop & etch the PCB (make sure the tray resists all chemicals used)
1 small hand held drill to drill holes in the PCB; something like a Proxxon or Dremel is fine.
3 drills, 0.6mm 0.8mm and 1.0mm. I recommend Hard Metal (HM) drills as they last (if handled properly) more than 10 times longer than High Speed Steel (HSS) drills.
1 metal ruler
1 "snap-off" knife which may cause burns or unwanted dropplets of the strongly caustic NaOH solution burning your skin or damaging your clothing. I prepare my developer solution by putting one L cold water into a developer tray, and then slowly "sprinkling" the NaOH pellets in it, evenly covering the whole surface. Be carefull to completely dissolve all pellets (stirring or agitating) because undissolved pellets may cause local overdevelopment of the PCBs' sensitive layer, leading to unusable PCBs. The developer solution can be used to develop a few PCBs (3 or 4 at least), but I throw it away after every batch.

Prepare etching solution either by dissolving Iron Chloride pellets in warm water (about 50 degrees centigrade, about as warm as you can bear for prolonged periods). Use about 1kg with 1 L water; use less if you need less. If you already have previously prepared solution, heat it until it is about 45 degrees centigrade. DO NOT do this on a stove as it may easily run out of control, but use the "au bain marie" method with hot running watter from the tap. If you use a previously prepared solution, you may wish to start heating up this solution before you do anything else; if you make fresh solution you may consider making it as the last step prior to etching. Other methods of heating the solution exist, you can for instance use a water heater normally used in aquariums, but these are fragile, and if ANYTHING goes wrong, just the slightest leakage of the water heater will result in a potentially dangerous situation. Especialy water with salts dissolved in it (such as the etching solution) conducts elecricity very well.

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4. Manufacturing a PCB
Expose the PCB. If you're using a fluorescent UV source (TL) you should "preheat" the tube(s) for at least two minutes just prior to starting the exposure (preheating must be followed by exposure within two minutes, otherwise you'll have to preheat again).
Most PCBs come with a blue or black, selfadhesive protective layer that must be removed before exposure and processing. Peel this off carefully, not scratching the delicate UV-sensitive resist layer, in subdued light. Most UV-sensitive resists are not very sensitive to normal room lighting, but leaving them out in full sunlight for a day will definitely spoil them. Now pressing it firmly into the corner of the alignment tool, between the two transparancies, put it on the glass plate of the PCB-exposure-box. Put the sheet of black paper on top of this, so that it completely covers the PCB, and pressing the PCB onto the PCB-exposure-boxes' glass plate (weighting it with a couple of books for instance), start the exposure. Some PCB-exposure-boxes come with a foam-covered lid, that can be clamped tight during exposure to ensure good contact between the glass plate, the transparency and the PCB. If your box has this construction use this instead of the books method. After the exposure open the lid or remove the books, remove the black piece of paper, flip the whole transparancy-PCB-transparancy-pack over, making sure that the orientation of the PCB with respect to the transparancies is not altered, readjust alignment by firmly pressing the PCB into the corner of the alignment tool, and put the piece of black paper on top of tihs, completely covering the PCB. Now expose the second side of the PCB using the method described above.
Remove the PCB and set it aside in dark place. Repeat the procedure above for any number of PCB's you may wish to make. After you have completed all exposures, remove the alignment tool with both transparancies, put it on a flat table, flip over the top transparancy (using the tape as a hinge). Both INK sides of the transparancies should now point up. This is important because these transparancies have a tendency to become stuck to each other, and transfer ink from one surface onto the other, when the INK sides of two transparancies are in prolonged contact with eachother. If you're totally finished with the transparancies you should remove them from the alignment tool ASAP, as most selfadhesive tapes have a tendency to become very difficult to remove after some time, especially in the presence of UV-light.
The exposure time of PCBs can vary from brand to brand and from lighting source to lighting source. YOU should experiment using several small pieces of PCB and several different timings to determine your combinations' optimal value. I find 2 minutes 15 seconds a good starting point (as a matter of fact, this is what I always use, indifferent of brand and indifferent of which of the two (different) exposure-boxes at my disposal I use).
If you have a carefull look at the exposed PCB, you can see the pcb traces in the resin coat as a slight discolouration. This discolouration may either be darker or lighter that the surroundings, depending on the brand.
Develop the PCB in the NaOh solution, stirring/agitating an turning over the PCB at regular intervals. If the photosensitive resin comes off totally (within a minute) your PCB is overexposed. If nothing seems to happen (within 2 minutes), your PCB is underexposed. If the resin partially comes off, and the traces become much easier to see, chances are that you have a correctly exposed PCB. One major problem with PCBs is that sometimes a VERY THIN layer of photoresist still covers the PCB when YOU think that development was complete. This invisible layer of photorisist will however still resist etching! For this reason I recommend leaving the PCB in the NaOH solution for about two minutes after YOU thought the development process was complete (nothing changes anymore). If the photoresist comes off the traces during these two minutes, the PCB was overexposed anyway (or you're using very bad quality PCBs or your transparancies are too light). Bad quality PCBs can be identified by the fact that there is no large exposure range between an underexposed and an overexposed PCB. Normally, using a very good quality transparancies (the photographic films printshops produce), PCBs can be overexposed by more than a factor two with barely noticable effects.
After development is complete rinse the PCB in warm running water for at least two minutes to remove all NaOH traces.
Etch the PCB in the Iron Chloride solution. The Iron Chloride should have a termperature of about 40 degrees centigrade (can just be touched for prolonged periods of time without being unpleasantly hot) for optimal performance. If the temperature is too high you may spoil your PCB in one of two ways: strong underetching of the tracks or deterioration of the photosensitive resist layer. If the temperature is too low you may spoil your PCB because the traces become underetched as well; this is something curious i've not been able to figure out exactly, but perhaps it has something to do with the orientation of crystals within the metal, at low temperatures the lateral rate of etching seems be higher than the normal-to-the-surface rate of etching, causing underetching.to connect the ground planes on both sides of the PCB together. If there is a slight misalignment you can spot this, and use this information with the other holes where such a misalignment would lead to damage. Drill all holes with the correct size drill for that hole; in this image the 0.6mm holes are identified by green crosses, the 0.8mm holes by red circles and the 1.0mm holes by blue squares. Apart from the 0.6mm holes in the GND planes start with the 1.0mm holes, then the 0.8mm holes, and drill the 0.6mm holes last. This prevents you from accidently redrilling a hole with a larger drill, which will very easily lead to the drill become stuck and breaking.
If you use HM drills be carefull as these drills are VERY brittle; dropping them on the table from as little as 100mm height may cause them to break. The good thing with HM drills is that these last (if properly handled) for more than 2000 holes, where the HSS drills will be blunt after 10 holes in glass fibre based PCBs, and completely useless after 50 holes. Be carefull not to excert any sideways forces on the drills as these forces are the reason they break. If you have unsteady hands and/or are unexperienced you should use the (well lubricated, sturdy) "rig", as these prevent any sideways forces. I prefer to use the drill hand held, and I've broken 2 HM drills the last two years, both of them by dropping them. This has not always been the case though.
Drilling is easiest if you place the PCB on a hard flat surface, and hold it by the edges. this not only gives added stability, but also reduces the risk of drilling into your own hand. Make your mother-father-husband-wife-daughter-son-niece-nephew-dog-cat and last but not least yourself happy by putting a piece of scrap wood or cardboard underneath the PCB you're drilling to prevent you from drilling through your pcb into your table. Of course this piece of scrap wood/cardboard must be thick enough to prevent any accidents.
Separate the PCBs after all holes have been drilled by using the metal ruler and the "snap-off" knife. You do this by placing the PCB on a hard flat surface, and inscribing a line in the middle of the PCB with the knife along the ruler. Do this several times, on both sides until you've cut about halfway through the PCB. You can then easily separate the PCBs by breaking them along the inscribed lines. You may find that the knife becomes blunt VERY quickly (it is after all cutting through glass), and that is the reason I use snap-off knifes. Be carefull not to harm yourself or your tabletop with the knife. After you've separated the PCB's and removed any loose fibres (by carefully cutting allong the edge of the PCB), you are ready to proceed to building the circuit. Continue to order via PCBexpress:
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PCB Printed Circuit Board Sometimes abbreviated as PCB, is a thin plate on which chips and other electronic components are placed. PCB Printed Circuit Board is the component made of one or more layers made of insulating material of electrical conductors.In electronics, printed circuit boards, or PCBs, are used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways, or traces, etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate.

There are a few modern approaches to PCB manufacturing like PCB milling,laser drilling/routing,which uses a series of production steps (drilling/ trace isolation/ cutting board outline) to create single and multilayer boards on a single machine.We specialise in PCB manufacturing services.Our PCB manufacturing services are geared towards giving our customers the best service.Making your own prototype PCBs

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What this is all about

With this page I try to show you one method for creating your own professional-looking PCBs. They say a picture's worth a thousand words, so I used enough pictures and let them do most of the talking.

Having a 20-year experience in making my own prototype PCBs, and having tried dozens of different methods, I recommend the method described on this page as the best, both in terms of cost and overall effort. Although the use of a specific unique product is required, this should not be viewed as an advertisement. I have no connection whatsoever with the company mentioned. However, I don't see why a good product should not be talked about for what its worth. I have photographed all the stages of the process for you to look at. Making Printed Circuit Boards at Home
By Bryan Ackerly, VK3YNG
(Updated, 14 feb 2004)
3.3 Ink Jet printer and film
Best results seem to be from an ink jet printer. A laser jet printer does not seem to give as good results. Through experimentation the best combination seems to be using an Epson printer with >720dpi resolution and the use of Epson film (part no S041063). A box of this film (30 sheets) will set you back about $100, but if used properly a full box will last a long time. There are cheaper films available but they do not produce as good results. Consider purchasing among a number of people to distribute costs. This film is chemically treated to react with the ink. Do not handle the film directly with your fingers!!! VERY FAST & EASY PCB MAKING
by Jacques Brodeur VE2EMM November, 03

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This page describes a new way to make PCBs with a laser printer, water release paper and a laminating machine.


MATERIAL REQUIRED
PCB drawing software.
Laser printer with a resolution of better than 600 dpi or a laser photo-copier.
Water release paper.
Green TRF Film.
Modified Hot laminating machine.
Etching liquid.
320 wet sanding paper.
Transparent Green spray enamel.
scrubbing pads.
Stainless & Copper cleaner powder.


DRAW THE TRACES WITH A PCB DRAWING SOFTWARE
My preferred software is Sprit-Layout form ABACOM in Germany. Also check their sPlan schematic software.
It is for home-brew users as it supports only 2 sided PCBs, but it is so friendly that you will be able to design PCBs the first time you use it.


PREPARING THE COPPER CLAD BOARD
Clean the copper with the powder your wife use to clean her copper and stainless pots and pans (LAGOSTINA Stainless & Copper cleaner) from SEARS. Use warm water and a scrubbing pad (Scotch Bright). Rub vigorously to prepare the PCB in order to have the toner stick to it better.
Dry it with an old clean rag. Do not use a paper towel, it contains silicone and leaves a residue.
Finish by wiping with Acetone or Alcohol to remove any trace of grease.
USING A LASER PRINTER, PRINT ON WATER RELEASE PAPER
This paper is available from PULSAR as TTS paper (toner transfer System) and from DigiKey or from VE2JX in Montreal.
There are 3 precautions when using this type of paper:
Print only on the shiny side. Set the printer to its highest density setting.

Handle this paper by the edges with dry hands.
Never send a page through the printer if it got wet.
FUSING THE PCB IMAGE ON THE COPPER

The FUSING Technique: (hot); The objective is to make the toner image stick to the PCB without using any glue or additive to make it stick. With the application of heat for a period of time with pressure, the toner will become tacky and stick very well to whatever it is touching; a process called “fusing」. This toner will be the resist.
PLACE the paper on the bare PCB board, toner on the copper.
PASS them between the rollers of the hot laminating machine from PULSAR or a GBC 95P or H-200 laminating machine modified to reduce its speed.
DIP the board with the paper stuck to it in water, the paper will be released in about 1 minute, run some water over the board to wash off any residual glue(release agent).
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